0. Preface


This online Textbook based on half-year course APM346 at Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto but contains many additions.


This Textbook is open (which means that anyone can use it without any permission or fees) and open-source (which means that anyone can easily modify it for his or her own needs) and it will remain this way forever. Source (in the form of Markdown) of each page could be downloaded: this page's URL is


and its source's URL is


and for all other pages respectively.

The Source of the whole book could be downloaded as well. Also could be downloaded Textbook in pdf format and TeX Source (when those are ready). While each page and its source are updated as needed those three are updated only after semester ends.

Victor Ivrii
Department of Mathematics
University of Toronto

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Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.